Category: Great Lakes

Eclipse Weather

by Meteorologist, Kerry Challoner Anderson

After listening to my daughter’s description of her total eclipse experience I regret not making the effort to get myself in position to be in the path of totality.  Instead my experience included trying to prepare the midday update for Oregon and realizing that I could not see the where the extent of the low marine clouds because the visible satellite pictures need light and with the eclipse in full swing that was nowhere to be found.

I teach online classes and many of my students where in the path of totality. So I asked them to report on whether they noticed a change in the temperature and winds.   All reported a significant drop in temperature and winds.  Well the instruments report the same thing.  Here is a look at some select temperature and wind readings from stations in the path of totality.


Read More

West Coast Wind Blog: Far afield for a quick look at…

Super Cyclone Debbie

by Mike Godsey,

Pretty windy in much of the S. F. Bay Area today. But Kerry, one of the Weatherflow Bay Area meteorologist, has family near Airlee Beach Australia and it is really windy in that area today as super cyclone Debbie kept the nearest sensor above 100 knots. Here is some imagery from Debbie.

Read More

Beware the Witch of November!

by WeatherFlow meteorologist Shea Gibson

Get ready Great Lakes for a possible “November Witch” to broom into the area by Thursday/Friday with a cauldron of warm air, cold air and violent gales! The name comes from intensifying Low pressures with a clashing of warm air, rain and storms ahead drawn up from the Gulf of Mexico…and cold Canadian air with heavy snow wrapping down around it. At times in the past, we have seen hurricane category force 1 and 2 winds generated over the Great Lakes as the two air masses collide. This is typically a more frequent event to see this time of the year; however, the effects of a La Nina pattern have kept warmer air up across the upper midwest until this week as we see the pattern begin to act more like the fall season.

The old saying goes: “Beware the Witch of November!”

The Witch of November phrase was used in the famous song “The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald” (happened in 1975) by Canadian singer-songwriter Gordon Lightfoot, which was a tribute to one of the most well-known Great Lakes shipwrecks known in that area.

Artistic rendition of an angry and cruel Lake Michigan.


And the “pointy hat” of a “cruel witch” from Photographer Dave Sandford.


S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald before it went down in Lake Superior on November 10, 1975. All 29 of its crew perished. Between 1878 and 1987, 6,000 ships have been lost on the Great Lakes…with upwards of 25,000 individuals losing their lives over the last 300 years.


Sadly, the National Weather Service Marquette, WI did issue fair warning ahead of their departure, but they went anyways.


GFS model surface run showing a possible 987mb Low (very strong winds are typically generated at this pressure)


GFS 500mb chart showing the strong mid level vorticity just west of the Great Lakes by Friday afternoon.
ECMWF (EURO model showing agreement with lower pressure at 982mb’s.
San Francisco State University 300mb (~30,000ft)  jet stream analysis showing an intense dip in the jet stream with strong Southerly flow aloft pushing over 100kts – with higher areas of streaking to the SW and the NW.

As we head into Saturday, we see winds pick up across the Great Lakes:

Here is the GFS wind forecast for (Lake) Superior West Buoy topping 30mph – the CMC Canadian model (yellow line) reaches into the 40’s.
And here is the forecast not too far away at Stannard Rock in Lake Superior as well:
Even though this is still 5-6 days out with much that could change, it does serve as plenty of heads up to mariners up that way to keep an eye on developing conditions this week.

UPDATE 11/18/16: Looks like this storm verified with wind in excess of 50mph over Lake Superior and other locales where the wrap-around winds are really cranking up. Here is a video of the system and the winds + gusts.  Snow and blizzard conditions are on the N/NW/W/SW side of the system where cold air is wrapping into it… with white-out conditions for many locales.

Stay safe everyone!
Shea Gibson
WeatherFlow Meteorologist/Wind Forecaster
SE Region/East Coast/Tropics

Outreach & New Station Projects

How to find me:
Twitter: @WeatherFlowCHAS
Wind Alert – 
WeatherFlowCHAS –
Chucktown Wind Report –

Sources for this blog: Our own Datascope viewer, Tropical Tidbits (Levi Cowan), WeatherBell Analytics, NWS Marquette, WI ,, Photographer Dave Sandford

Read More

Omega Block Followed by Fall Temps to the East

By WeatherFlow meteorologist Shea Gibson 9/20/2016

The Polar jet is starting to show a couple of strong dips from the north as we head into fall. Two Rossby waves (jet stream dips) are shown forming here that creates what is called an “Omega Block” Ω – this shows two upper Lows pinched off in the dips with High pressure in the middle.

This loop is from Sept 21- Sept 25



Record warmth with a strong cold front drawn up behind the first dip are suggested, but not definite. This front could bring strong rains and storms up and down the line as moisture pulls from the Pacific and connects with the Gulf of Mexico.

Here is the GFS showing the cold front on Sept 25th – which this is likely to change over the next few days – my opinion is one of intensifying the front a bit more. This could bring severe weather to many spots.


In its wake, a cold air mass pushes down behind the second dip and sweeps across the country as Canadian High pressure wedges down cooler air. Temps may be more significantly cooled along the northern tier, Midwest and NE United States, but temps should fall a few degrees across the SE region into FL with dew points also falling to help drier air filter in with it.


In short, we could see our first real batch of widespread cooler fall air making its way across the midwest and eastern US by the end of the month. Of course, these Canadian air masses mean stronger N/NE winds for the East Coast and SE Regions, so heads up for the coastal water and offshore interests.

This 18z (6pm tonight) GFS forecast for Sept 29 shows a possible scenario with a NE wedge setup for the Mid Atlantic and SE region. This is 9 days out, so there again, we’ll need to watch for consistency ad verification of this model.


Stay safe!

Shea Gibson
WeatherFlow Meteorologist/Wind Forecaster
SE Region/East Coast/Tropics
New Stations Projects & Outreach
Twitter: @WeatherFlowCHAS


Sources: California Regional Weather Server via San Francisco State University Dept of Meteorology, WeatherBELL Analytics, LLC , Tropical Tidbits 

Read More

Wet Macroburst in Chandler, AZ shows 116mph winds.

By WeatherFlow Meteorologist Shea Gibson

Ever been in a thunderstorm and a sudden burst of strong winds and rain comes down at the same time? This is called a “wet microburst”, which packs quite a punch when it comes to the strong winds associated with them. They can be particularly dangerous for airplanes and can level trees in forest areas. Not to be confused with tornadoes, winds can reach up to 100mph or higher (equal to an EF-1 tornado) as the moisture core of the storm cell drops all at once (due to updraft weakening) and slams to the ground.

By the NOAA definition, a microburst is a localized column of sinking air (downdraft) within a thunderstorm and is usually less than or equal to 2.5 miles in diameter. Microbursts can cause extensive damage at the surface, and in some instances, can be life-threatening. There are two primary types of microbursts: 1) wet microbursts and 2) dry microbursts. Wet microbursts are accompanied by significant precipitation and are common in the Southeast during the summer months.  (Anything larger than 2.5 miles in diameter is called a “macroburst“.) 



Just recently in Phoenix, AZ on July 18, 2016, an incredible picture was captured of a wet macroburst dropping from a storm cell. It was taken by Bruce Haffner using a drone. He is a television helicopter pilot/reporter in Phoenix, Arizona. Check out their aerial HD videos at




Here is a report we got from the Chandler Airport, AZ (southeast Phoenix) with 116mph winds at 6:50PM.



Stay safe out there.


Shea Gibson
WeatherFlow Meterologist
SE Region/ EC / Tropics
Outreach/ New Station Projects
Twitter: @WeatherFlowCHAS



Read More

Is El Niño finished?

by WeatherFlow Meteorologist Shea Gibson

As many now, we had quite a strong El Niño develop in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean as Sea Surface temperatures soared to 3.1°C above normal (tying the previous record from 1997).  Normal is considered as 28°C or ~82.4°F. The focus now is shifting towards a La Nina this year, in which the equatorial central and eastern Pacific is now cooling rather quickly.

First thing is to identify with the Niño regions and where they are.  The ONI (Oceanic Niño Index) is derived from the largest and most influential region, Niño Region 3.4, over an overlapping 5 season period for consistency. This is done in 3 month increments.

Let’s take a quick look at the latest Sea Surface Temperatures, which show an obvious cooling streak along the equatorial eastern and central Pacific. This is due to cool water up-welling from deeper below the surface along what is called the “thermocline” (underwater body of cooler water).


Here is a good example of what the thermocline is about from

And here is the latest from the Climate Prediction Center showing the cool water upwelling towards the surface and sending pushing warmer waters back to the west:



Here is the anomaly of temperature departures which shows the significant drop in temps recently along that belt.


Equatorial upper ocean heat that shows cooling starting in March and going well into May (from the latest CPC ENSO report).

And the graph of all 4 regions (from the same report) showing the steady decline:

Here are the latest CDAS SST’s by region:
Region 4:


Region 3.4 (Oceanic Nino Index) – almost at normal:
Region 3:

Region 1+2:

So what are the chances of a La Nina year? Pretty good case for it to develop by summer 2016 and a 75% chance by the fall/winter.

Notice the NCEP CFSv2 aggressively bringing it down May/June/July:

And the Euro (ECMWF) being less aggressive and keeping a more ENSO Neutral Phase by late summer into fall:

Bottom line is that the Sea Surface Temps are falling and a La Nina is favored. It certainly appears that we have enbtered a ENSO Neutral phase, but we will have to wait and see what the ONI values say once overlapping and other details give researchers the information they need to determine the index. After such a strong El Nino, it should be interesting to see how the Atlantic responds. Waiting on the 3 month ENSO Diagnostic to come out in June from the CPC and watching as temps continue to fall. We’ll be keeping an eye on this and the tropics- the Atlantic Basic Hurricane Season starts up on June 1st and we are already seeing an area of potential near the Bahamas. Let’s see what happens this year!


Shea Gibson
WeatherFlow Meteorologist /Wind Forecaster
New Station Projects & Outreach
SE Region / East Coast
Twitter: @WeatherFlowCHAS

Tropical Tidbits:







Read More

Hurricane history in the making.

WC29Unusual hurricane pattens in Hawaiian and Cabo Verde Islands.

Take a look at the animation below of the 4 hurricanes currently transiting Hawaiian waters south of the North Pacific High.

Never in recorded history has there been 4 hurricanes at the same time in these waters.

Meteorologically speaking having 4 hurricanes at the same time in Hawaiian waters is sort of like the Gorge having a whole summer season of EAST winds or the Bay Area 4hurricaneshaving a whole summer season without a marine layer. It could happen but it would really make you think something is out of whack.

As you may know we run the Hurricane Sensor Mesonet for NOAA and other government agencies so we really keep on top of these storms. Today Shea, one of our east coast meteorologist, did a blog noting that for the first time in history the Cape Verde Islands off of Africa saw a hurricane develop before landfall:

Hurricanes thrive on warm ocean waters and it is becoming clear that the pacific blob and other sources of ocean stored heat are having an unprecedented impact on hurricane genesis this season.

To see our Gorge sensor crew in action installing one of our hurricane sensors check out this drone video:

To get an idea how extensive our Hurricane network is go to this page and just zoom in to see the incredible number of our hurricane sensors on the eastern seaboard.,-82.046,7,1

Read More

Baja Guide


Baja Guide Links

Daily Human Forecast

Home  | Why Baja blows | Feedback: Baja forecast | | Road Rules |  Driving Down | Where to go. | | Food & Water | CampingResorts | Money, insurance, pets | Hurricane Diary | Windless days | East Cape driving maps | Fish/Surf | Baja photos |

Driving down Baja this season? Be sure to see all the updates with close up maps and places to stay. Use the Driving Down link.

A Baja trip is not just a vacation…it is an adventure. For kiters and windsurfers the reliable, steady winds combined with a fetch of hundreds of
 miles means huge rolling swell. On days when it does not blow the kayaking, dirt biking, mountain biking, fishing, hiking, ATVing are world class.

If this is your first trip these VIDEOS will give you an idea of  what to expect for windsurfing, kiting and kayaking

Whether you are just dreaming about winter sailing or kiting, planning your first trip or preparing for your annual winter migration you will find the Baja Guide links at the top of the page useful.

After over 43 exploring, diving and windsurfing trips ranging from San Carlos to Cabo Pulmo and a total of over 4 years spent in Baja I still have lots to learn. Contact me at for suggestions or additional information. Have fun exploring this guide and Baja!

 Border Crossing!

Live video feed of traffic at Tijuana border crossing. Current wait times at all Baja border crossing.

If this is your first drive to Baja check out the updated Baja Travelogue link and learn about the driving traditions of Baja in the Baja Driving hints link. 

Driving from the Los Cabos airport to Los Barriles or La Ventana for the first time? Here is a detailed driving map: East Cape driving maps

 La Paz to La Ventana map! If this is your first driving trip to La Ventana you will find it hard to navigate from the outskirts of La Paz to the road La Ventana. To help you I have made a map of this area at the bottom of this page: East Cape driving maps

Thinking about buying land or building a house in La Ventana? I have been watching different mMexicancontractors and gringo “supervisors” build houses for over 12 years in this area. There are several good ones but many poor ones. Contact me at

The new El Chaparral border crossing into Tijuana opened Thursday Nov. 1 2012 and the old border crossing is closed. DO NO USE a older GPS UNTIL YOU ARE 5 MILES PAST THE BORDER. IT WILL BE INACCURATE DUE TO NEW ROADS. At the bottom of the page is a map showing how to get to the new border crossing. If you follow the map you will find it much easier than the old crossing to get your visa and to pay your bank fee at the inspection area. The Secretary of Tourism office in Tijuana reports that the Migracion office and the bank are both open 24 hours/day. See the map and description at the bottom of this page.

However it appears they are sometimes enforcing the importation limits of only one of any item per person without paying a duty:

First timers guide getting your FMM “tourist card” stamped and paying your bank fee at the new “El Chaparal” Tijuana border crossing:
If you are NOT importing any products into Mexico or do NOT have large trailer, boat or RV:
1. After you curve into the crossing you will see a mass of check points that look like toll gates.
2. ignore the cars you see just driving through the gates and departing. There are locals who do not need their FM stamped.
2. Proceed through one of these gates very slowly watching for instructions from any police.
3. Once through these gates you will see see parking ahead.
4. Park your car and bring your car registration, passport and mexican insurnace and walk back towards the large building.
5. Entering the building and you will find the “inmigracion” office. Present your paperwork here and fill out the FMM.
6. Head west about 50 feet inside the building and you will find the “Banco”. Pay $24.50 USD or Peso equivalent.

7. Return to “inmigracion” office and have your FMM stamped.
8. Return to your car and exit looking for the sign saying “A Playas De Tijuana, Rosarito Y Ensenada.
9. Go up this exit then merge with the road that runs parallel to the border fence for several miles.

If you are importing any products into Mexico or have large trailer, boat or RV:
1. If you have a large RV or trailer or need to declare goods you want to stay in the far RIGHT lane as you make the left turn towards the crossing. After you curve into the crossing you will see a mass of check points that look like toll gates.
2. Ignore these gates and continue straight and park in the large parking lot on the north side of the large building.
3. Park your vehicle and bring your car registration, passport and mexican insurnace and walk into large building.
4. Walk down a long wide hallway then turn left to the “inmigracion” office.
from this point follow the instructions above.

At the bottom of the page you will find more details about duties and a link to the customs page put out by the Mexican Government.

Here is a video which, after the ad, shows exactly how to cross the border and get to the toll road. Be sure to pull over at the red shade shelters at the crossing shown in the video to get your FMM, pay your bank fee and declare any imported stuff.:

 If you have not crossed the border since Nov. 1, 2012 be aware that the Tijuana Border Crossing has been replaced.

The new El Chaparral border crossing into Tijuana opened Thursday Nov. 1 2012 and is much easier to navigate and to get your FMM visa and pay your bank fee than the old crossing. Just study the maps at the bottom of this page.

To access the new border crossing from Hwy. 5 you will be directed to take a very sharp cubing 5 lane that curves of Hwy. 5 right at the border near the old crossing. This road heads west for 0.2 miles parallel to the border inside of Mexico. Then it makes a left into the new border crossing which you can see in the bottom photo below.

View Larger Map

As you approach the new crossing look for a sign saying “Declaración” and park. Bring with you 1. $24.50 UDS or pesos. 2. Car registration, 3. Driver License. 4. Passport

Enter the building and walk pass the sign for saying Banco”. Ahead you will see “Inmigración”

Then fill out the FMM visa form. Take the completed form to the Banco and pay your $24.50 UDS or pesos.
Return to the “Inmigración” to get your form stamped.

Return to you car and leave. Doug reports that as of Nov. 4 there were no signs of the old green light red light inspection stop.

Leaving the crossing take the “A Palyas de Tijuana, Rosarito Y Ensenada turn off over the dry river bed. This will merge with the old route running parallel to the border and on to Hwy 1D toll road to Ensenada.

The photos and maps below should help you through this new crossing.

Border crime

Border crime involving tourists has continued to dramatically decline in the Tijuana area. 2012 and so far in 2013 there have been no reports on any issues.
Entering Baja if you cross the border and take the direct route to the toll freeway to Ensenada you are very unlikely to have any problems.

Coming back to the USA by way of Tijuana is more problematic since it is easy to miss the turnoff to San Diego or it may be full forcing you to wander about the streets of Tijuana trying to find the Otay border crossing. I strongly recommend you take leave Hwy. 1 just north of Ensenada and cross the border at Tecate. Yes, it is a longer drive but you will actually save time since you will have a much shorter wait at the border. The route is very scenic and you avoid the whole Tijuana scene.

Remember criminal events involving tourists happened to people who drove through the TJ area in the dark early AM hours when the Tijuana streets are almost empty.

Violence in Baja continues in parts of border cities where drug cartels are having turf wars.
To put this in perspective the most recent statistics shows Mexico has a current rate of 1200 violent crimes per 100,000 residents. The USA as a whole has a violent crime rate of 467 per 100,000 so overall Mexico is a more violent country. But violence in Mexico is like the USA in that certain cities and neighborhoods harbor most of the violent criminals. To put this in perspective: Washington, D.C.’s 2007 violent crime rate was 1,413. This is even higher than Mexico yet no one is suggesting that people not visit the nations capital.

Since most of you will be passing on the highway on the outskirts of Tijuana let’s focus on that violence-ridden city. In 2007 Tijuana’s murder rate was 17.5 murders per 100,000 people. Pretty scary but Tijuana had a significantly lower murder rate than Las Vegas, Houston, Dallas while New Orleans had a murder rate 300% higher than Tijuana.

But the bottom line is that violence is scary especially when you are in a foreign country and don’t speak the language. Personally, you could not pay me to drive around the streets of Tijuana these days especially at night or pre-dawn. But then again I have same feelings about parts of Los Angeles. So follow the guidelines below and look at the map at the bottom of the page very carefully so you don’t get an undesired tour to unsavory parts of Tijuana.

I try to keep in a tight caravan and keep on the highway until south of Ensenada. This is the area where the vast majority of the violence has occurred.
Remember thousands of old folks in their late 60’s and 70’s drive down this road every year in monstrous RVs. If they can handle it so can you. Just use some common sense.
The key to safety is WHERE and WHEN you make your border crossing. Below is what can happen if you “just do it” without planning your border crossing. As you read this story remember that this happened during the bad times in Tijuana and there have been no reports like this for years now.:

Hi Mike,

“From your tip about the bad road sign to the turn off for the San Diego border crossing in Tijuana near the border I was very careful and drove slowly. I even asked for some directions from the last toll both. They just said it was very easy and did not offer more than that. I caught all the road signs and made the right turns until I got to the last split in the road before US customs. I could not tell which way to go. I stopped and searched for a clue. Traffic was not bad there. That was my big mistake.
I finally spotted a small sign about 3 foot off the ground sitting on the cement barrier. It was about 40% obscured. I crept close and saw that San Diego was to the right. I proceeded to the right , came around a curve and got in the line to enter the US.

Then two TJ police walked up to my car with flashlights and a military style machine gun. The looked like soldiers with full military gear except that it was all black. I rolled down the window and they said I stopped in traffic and that was dangerous. They told me to follow them to the police station to pay a fine of 100 (did not say pesos or dollars). I said ok. They opened a gate in the barrier next to their booth and directed me there. It was a tight squeeze but my car got through.
I followed them and they led me to a dark area under a freeway overpass where no one else could see us. They told me to get out of the car and the officer with the gun directed me to the back of the car so the other one could search my car for “beer, or drugs or guns”. They spoke English. They put their hands in my pockets and emptied them. They took my wallet and emptied it on the hood of car and asked for registration which I gave them. At one point I though they were going to hand cuff me. They kept saying they were going to take me to the police station. I was scared but I remained as cooperative as possible. Maybe that was a mistake too.

While one officer kept me at the back of the car trying to distract me by saying I would go to jail for not having Mexican prescriptions for my pills. They were a type of Motrin which I explained can be purchased at any store no prescription needed. He was just trying to distract me from his partner that spend about 20 minutes searching my car until he found one of my stashes of cash. It was in a pill bottle Hidden behind a seat. They even searched my toiletry bag. They were persistent. I had money left over from paying the workers for the construction on our properties. He pocketed the $500 US as if I did not see him take it. I don’t know how much more they would have taken if had found more.
They told me to take off. I looked for a badge number but could not see it. I saw their white pickup truck had the number 066 on the back. The cop with machine gun was about 5’6”tall a little stocky. The other one was taller, thinner and wore black rim glasses. I walked to the place where he took the money from to let them know that I know they took it. They got angry and yelled and started to come back from their car toward me. I told them I was closing up the car and putting things away so I could drive off safely. They backed off and I left. and made my way back to border.

I think having my red kayak on top was a red flag that attracted too much attention.
I tried to get the complaint form from the sindictatura but that link is no longer valid. I also tried to call without success. They said it was the wrong number.”

These are scary reports but keep in mind that far worse things happen every day in american big cities. Thousands of people travel Mex. Hwy. 1 in Baja every day and reports of major trouble are still very rare. The real Mexican police are increasing patrols from the border on Mexico Highway 1 leading to the Ensenada toll road.


 of Nov. 1, 2012 there is an new Border Crossing at the Tijuana border.TijuanaCrossing2

The new El Chaparral border crossing into Tijuana opened Thursday Nov. 1 2012 and is much easier to navigate and to get your FMM visa and pay your bank fee than the old crossing. Just study the maps at the bottom of this page.

To access the new border crossing from Hwy. 5 you will be directed to take a very sharp cubing 5 lane that curves of Hwy. 5 right at the border near the old crossing. This road heads west for 0.2 miles parallel to the border inside of Mexico. Then it makes a left into the new border crossing which you can see in the bottom photo below.

As you approach the new crossing look for a sign saying “Declaración” and park. Bring with you 1. $24.50 UDS or pesos. 2. Car registration, 3. Driver License. 4. Passport

Enter the building and walk pass the sign for saying Banco”. Ahead you will see “Inmigración”

Then fill out the FMM visa form. Take the completed form to the Banco and pay your $24.50 UDS or pesos.
Return to the “Inmigración” to get your form stamped.

Return to you car and leave. Doug reports that as of Nov. 4 there were no signs of the old green light red light inspection stop.

Leaving the crossing take the “A Palyas de Tijuana, Rosarito Y Ensenada turn off over the dry river bed. This will merge with the old route running parallel to the border and on to Hwy 1D toll road to Ensenada.

Dealing with customs at the border:

Visit this web site for the most current regulations:


Goods for personal use, such as clothing, footwear and personal toiletries and beauty products, as long as they are appropriate for the duration of the trip, including wedding party items.
Baby travel accesories, such as strollers and baby-walkers.

Two photographic cameras or video recorders, 12 rolls of film or videocassettes;
photographic material;
three portable cell phone or other wireless networks;
global positioning equipment (GPS);
a portatil typewriter;
an electronic calendar;
a portable computer (laptop), notebook, omnibook or similar items;
a copier or portable printer; a portable projector, and their accessories.

Two sports equipment, four rods, three speedboats with or without sails and their accessories, trophies or recognitions, provided that they can be transported normally and commonly by the passenger, one stair climber and bicycle

A portable radio for the recording or reproduction of sound or mixed tapes; or a digital sound reproducer or portable reproducer of compact discs and a portable reproducer of DVD’s, such as a pair of portable speakers, and their accessories.

Five laser disks, 10 DVD disks, 30 compact disks (CD) or magnetic tapes (audiocassettes), for the reproduction of sound, three software packages and five storage devices or memory cards for any electronic equipments.

Books, magazines and printed documents.

Five toys, —included those that are collectible— and a video game console and five videogames.

One device that permits measurement of arterial pressure and one for glucose, as well as medications of personal use; in the case of psychotropics the medical prescription should be shown.

One set of binoculars and a telescope.

Valises, trunks and suitcases necessary for the movement of goods.

Passengers over 18 years of age, may introduce a maximum of up to 20 packs of cigarettes, 25 cigars or 200 grams of tobacco and up to three liters of alcoholic beverages, and six liters of wine; in excess of the above, cannot be imported without complying with applicable regulations and restrictions.

Two musical instruments and its accessories.

A camping tent and camping equipment, as well as their accessories.

A set of tools including its case, it might have a hand drill, wire cutters, wrenches, dices, screwdrivers, current cables, among others.

Up to two dogs or cats, maybe introduced as well as their accesories, provided that the corresponding zoosanitary import certificate issued by (SAGARPA) is presented to the customs officials.

If you are carrying more than US$10,000, or its equivalent in other currencies, in cash, checks, money orders or any other monetary instrument, or a combination of them, you must declare the amount exceeding US$10,000. You will not have to pay duties or taxes, but you must declare it on the Customs Declaration form. Failing to declare it is a violation of Mexican Law and such violation is sanctioned with administrative and even criminal penalties.










Read More

Fluky Conditions in VA

Just caught a good example in the VA area of conditions that reflect two of my staple bullet points in synoptic setups such as the one we are seeing today.  (*Heads up for fluky conditions / shifty directions as each synoptic feature changes position / gains and or loses influence) and (*Showers and or thunderstorms possible which can induce some instability / inconsistency into the winds)

First, take a look at the observations from 9:10am, 9:20am and 9:36am.  Large variations in speed and direction can be seen in a very small area.  First thing to check is the radar… yup a small storm did dissipate overhead with more on the way from the W.

ScreenHunter_04 Oct. 23 09.14


ScreenHunter_04 Oct. 23 09.27

ScreenHunter_04 Oct. 23 09.38

ScreenHunter_04 Oct. 23 10.05

However, the radar did not quite tell the whole story.  Surface map check;)  Sure enough there is a center of low pressure and a boundary overhead.  More consistent W / NW winds are expected this afternoon once the coastal low forms and makes it far enough out into the Atlantic.

ScreenHunter_02 Oct. 23 09.13


Prepared by WeatherFlow Meteorologist Dave Breckenridge











Read More

Gust Front / Outflow Boundary

This snapshot of wind observations combined with a radar image of storms moving through NJ from W to E is a good example of a gust front / outflow boundary increasing our wind speeds out ahead of approaching storms.  A gust front / outflow boundary is simply a storm scale mass of cold / cool air that descends downward within thunderstorms from high up in the atmosphere.  As this mass of cold air reaches the ground its vertical momentum transfers to horizontal momentum, which can spread out well in advance of the approaching storms that spawned the gust front.

As you compare the following two images, please note two things of interest.  First, notice how far ahead of the storms the gust front can travel.  (Hook, Brick, Kite Island and even Tuckerton)  Second, directions at N sites are westerly due to the gust front and directions at S sites remain southerly as they were too far away from the storms at the time of the snapshot to have there conditions affected.

Gust Front Outflow Boundary Radar

Gust Front Wind Observations



Posted by WeatherFlow meteorologist Dave Breckenridge

Read More